BAGAIMANA MENGURANGI BIAS KEMURAHAN HATI DALAM PENILAIAN KINERJA SUBJEKTIF? SEBUAH PENDEKATAN EKSPERIMEN

Monika Handojono, Mahfud Sholihin

Abstract


The literature shows that leniency has negative impact on employee performance and firm productivity. However, there has been limited empirical research of how to mitigate the bias. This study examines if leniency is mitigateable by availability of subjective evaluation criteria and group rater. Using experimental method with sixty-nine undergraduate students as subjects, we find that process within group is effective to reduce individual subjective rating, even when there was no subjective criteria. However, we find group rating does not have effect on rating accuracy. Additionally, consistent with general assumption of leniency, we find that inflated rating is affected by altruistic traits of raters. With the inherent limitations associated with experimental method, our finding suggests that, in order to have subjective rating accurately, firm should promote sound rating process by defining more relevant criteria to complement the evaluation process.

Keywords: leniency, subjective evaluation, subjective evaluation criteria, group rater

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Literatur menunjukkan bahwa bias kemurahan hati berdampak negatif terhadap kinerja karyawan dan produktivitas perusahaan. Meskipun demikian, hanya terdapat sedikit penelitian empiris mengenai cara memitigasi bias ini. Penelitian ini menguji apakah bias kemurahan hati dapat dimitigasi melalui ketersediaan kriteria evaluasi subjektif dan penggunaan grup penilai. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan eksperimen yang diikuti oleh 69 mahasiswa S1 sebagai subjek, kami menemukan bahwa proses yang terjadi dalam grup efektif untuk menurunkan penilaian kinerja subjektif yang diberikan secara individual, bahkan ketika tidak tersedia kriteria subjektif. Namun, kami juga menemukan bahwa kriteria subjektif tidak berpengaruh terhadap keakuratan penilaian kinerja. Selain itu, konsisten dengan asumsi umum mengenai bias kemurahan hati, kami menemukan bahwa penilaian kinerja yang ditinggikan dipengaruhi oleh kepribadian altruistis penilai. Dengan berbagai keterbatasan yang melekat pada desain eksperimen, temuan kami menyarankan bahwa untuk menghasilkan penilaian kinerja subjektif yang akurat, perusahaan harus mendorong proses penilaian yang lebih baik melalui penetapan kriteria yang lebih relevan dalam mendukung proses evaluasi kinerja.

Kata kunci: bias kemurahan hati, penilaian kinerja subjektif, kriteria penilaian kinerja subjektif, grup penilai


Keywords


leniency; subjective evaluation; subjective evaluation criteria; group rater

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21002/jaki.2014.03



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